Trauma refers to external physical harm to the body. Severity of trauma depends on the nature and source of injury and part of the body affected.  Trauma can be classified on the basis of cause, modality, location and activity. Trauma may end up with scars, adhesions, repetitive strain, acute or chronic pain, inflammation, soft tissue injury and broken bones. Sometimes, excessive bleeding leads to shock and then death. Scars, adhesions and chronic pain may last long to affect the quality of life.

Scar: Scar is a fibrous tissue that results from natural healing process after injury. The process of scarring replaces normal skin with a kind of protein called “collagen” and connective tissue. All injuries to the body result in scarring except minor or superficial bruises or cuts. Scars may be hypertrophic, atrophic and in the form of stretch marks. Keloid is a serious type of hypertrophic scar.

Adhesion: Adhesion is a fibrous band that abnormally connects two surfaces of the body and often results from trauma, surgery, burn or radiation. Adhesions restrict normal movements, affect the posture and disturb the normal growth of the body organs.

Repetitive strain: Repetitive strain refers to pain or stress in a part of the body due to multiple or repetitive tasks.

Inflammation: Inflammation is a protective response of the body to eliminate the initial injury and to discard the damaged parts. It presents as pain, swelling, redness, heat and loss of function of the affected part of the body. Inflammation is of two types: acute and chronic. Acute inflammation may end up with resolution, fibrosis, abscess formation and chronic inflammation. Chronic inflammation leads to chronic ulcers and tissue destruction.

Soft tissue injury: It refers to the injury to soft tissues like muscles, tendons and ligaments. Such injuries usually result from sprain, strain or overuse of a part of the body and result in pain swelling and reduced function.

Broken bones: Severe and shear trauma results in broken bones. It exerts a great toll to the patients.